The U.S. Supreme Court unanimously held that a North Carolina law that the state has used to prosecute more than 1,000 sex offenders for posting on social media is unconstitutional because it violates the First Amendment.

The U.S. Supreme Court denied certiorari in what has become known as the  “dancing baby” case—a lawsuit brought by a woman who sued Universal Music Group for directing YouTube to take down a video of her toddler-age son dancing to Prince’s “Let’s Go Crazy.” The high court’s decision leaves in place the decision of the Ninth Circuit Court of Appeals holding that copyright owners must consider the possibility of fair use before sending a DMCA takedown notice.

Queen Elizabeth II proposed to Parliament a law that would require social networking sites to honor Internet users’ requests to remove anything the users shared before turning 18. The European Union already requires search engines to abide by users’ requests to remove information as part of the “right to be forgotten,” but the information must fulfill several criteria to qualify for removal.

In an effort to minimize the extent to which social bots can manipulate public opinion, Germany plans to update its communication laws to require the operators of social media platforms to identify when posts were generated by social bots and not actual people. And, yes, the name in German for this labeling requirement is Kennzeichnungspflicht.

In other German social-media-news, police in that country raided the homes of 36 people accused of posting on social media hate speech that included threats and harassment based on race and sexual orientation, and left-wing and right-wing extremist content.

Making Texas one of 18 states to pass a bill on self-driving cars, Lone Star State governor Greg Abbott signed a bill confirming that car manufacturers may test autonomous vehicles on Texas roads and highways.

Bitcoin’s price might be surging, but it has yet to achieve widespread usage.

Motivated in part by her desire to avoid real-estate-agent fees, a London homeowner plans to sell her house by hosting a viewing on Facebook Live and receiving offers through Facebook Messenger.

One year since agreeing with the European Commission to remove hate speech within 24 hours of receiving a complaint about it, Facebook, Microsoft, Twitter and YouTube are removing flagged content an average of 59% of the time, the EC reports.

The U.S. Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit held that a catering company violated the National Labor Relations Act when it fired an employee for posting to Facebook a profane rant about his supervisor in response to that supervisor admonishing him for “chitchatting” days before the employee and his coworkers were holding a vote to unionize.

The value of the digital currency Ether could surpass Bitcoin’s value by 2018, some experts say.

The Washington Post takes a look at how the NBA is doing a particularly good job of leveraging social media and technology in general to market itself to younger fans and international consumers.

A judge in Israel ruled in favor of a landlord who took down a rental ad based on his belief that a couple wanted to rent his apartment after they sent him a text message containing festive emoji and otherwise expressing interest in the rental. The landlord brought a lawsuit against the couple for backing out on the deal, and the court held the emoji in the couple’s text “convey[ed] great optimism.” The court further determined that, although the message “did not constitute a binding contract between the parties, [it] naturally led to the Plaintiff’s great reliance on the defendants’ desire to rent his apartment.” For a survey of U.S. courts’ treatment of emoji entered into evidence, read this post on Socially Aware.

The owner of a recipe site is suing the Food Network for copyright infringement, alleging that a video the network posted on its Facebook page ripped off her how-to video for snow globe cupcakes.

Twitter’s popularity with journalists has made it a prime target for media manipulators, The New York Times’s Farhad Manjoo reports. As a result, Manjoo claims, the microblogging platform played a key role in many of the past year’s biggest misinformation campaigns.

The Knight First Amendment Institute at Columbia University claims that the @realDonaldTrump Twitter account’s blocking of some Twitter users violates the First Amendment because it suppresses speech in a public forum protected by the Constitution.

Pop singer Taylor Swift, who pulled her back catalogue of music from free streaming services in 2014 saying the services don’t fairly compensate music creators, has now made her entire catalogue of music accessible via Spotify, Google Play and Amazon Music.

To encourage young people in swing constituencies to vote for Labour in the UK’s general election, some Tinder users turned their profiles over to a bot that sent other Tinder users between the ages of 18 and 25 automated messages asking if they were voting and focusing on key topics that would interest young voters.

Twitter is suing the Department of Homeland Security in an attempt to void a summons demanding records that would identify the creator of an anti-Trump Twitter account.

Facebook has joined the fight against the nonconsensual dissemination of sexually explicit photos online—content known as “revenge porn”—by having specially trained employees review images flagged by users and using photo-matching technologies to help stop revenge porn images from being shared on the company’s apps and platforms.

Amid its own revenge porn scandal, the U.S. Marines Corps has expanded its social media policy to clarify how military code can be used to prosecute members’ offensive or disrespectful online activities.

A Minnesota judge has ordered Google to disclose all searches for the name of the victim of a wire-fraud crime worth less than $30,000.

Scientists are studying the use of emoji in human interactions, marketing campaigns and business transactions. Here at Socially Aware we’ve taken a look at the difficulty that courts have had in evaluating the meaning of emoji in connection with contract, tort and other legal claims.

Did the White House’s social media director violate the Hatch Act with a tweet?

In the interest of maintaining big-spending advertisers’ business, Google is trying to teach computers the nuances of what makes content objectionable.

The upcoming desktop version of the popular mobile dating app Tinder, Tinder Online, prompts users to talk more and swipe less.

One jet-setting couple with a combined three million Instagram followers is earning between $3,000 and $9,000 per post.

The New York Times’s Brian Chen walks readers through some of the most worthwhile apps and tech gadgets in the pet-care category.

Google unveiled a new tool designed to combat toxic speech online by assessing the language commenters use, as opposed to the ideas they express.

Is a state law banning sex offenders from social media unconstitutional? Based on their comments during oral arguments in Packingham v. North Carolina, some U.S. Supreme Court justices may think so.

Facebook is implementing a feature that uses artificial intelligence to identify posts reflecting suicidal inclinations.

Facebook Analytics for Apps reached a significant milestone: It now supports more than 1 million apps.

So did YouTube, which recently surpassed 1 billion hours of video per day.

As many as 15% of regular social media usersthat is, people, not businesses—are buying “likes” on social media?!

The New York State Commission on Judicial Conduct’s warning to judges about their use of social media was prompted by this case in which a St. Lawrence County town judge used Facebook to criticize the prosecution of a town council candidate.

More than 40% of Americans incessantly check their gadgets for new messages and social media status updates, and it might be making them a little crazy.

University of Manchester researchers have developed a computer that is faster than any other because its processors are made of DNA, which allows the computer to replicate itself.

Mobile marketers can significantly increase the open rates of their push notifications by doing one simple thing: including emojis.

A woman whose “starter marriage” was covered by the New York Times wedding announcements section in 1989 might have been spared some angst if the United States had a Right to Be Forgotten, as Europe does.

The Internet Movie Database (IMDb) has filed suit to overturn a law that requires the popular entertainment website to remove the ages or birth dates of people in the entertainment industry upon request.

Vine might not be history after all.

Twitter users posted more than one billion election-related tweets between the first presidential debate and Election Day.

Facebook is testing a feature that allows company Page administrators to post job ads and receive applications from candidates.

People who create or encourage others to use “derogatory hashtags” on social media could be prosecuted in England and Wales.

A new “tried it” checkmark on pins will allow Pinterest users to share the products and projects they’ve purchased or attempted.

Did social media ads allow political campaigns to circumvent state laws prohibiting the visible promotion of candidates within a certain distance of polling places?

The Eight Circuit held that a college has the right to expel a student from its nursing program for inappropriate social media posts about his classmates, including the suggestion that he would inflict on one of them a “hemopneumothorax”—a lung puncture.

Law enforcement officials are increasing their use of social media to locate missing persons.

An unemployed single mother in California is facing several misdemeanor charges for selling her ceviche over social media.

Coming soon to a vending machine near you: Snapchat Spectacles (but only if you live in a densely populated area like New York or Los Angeles).

Social media analytics firms claim that social media did a better job at predicting Trump’s win than the polls.

Instagram now allows users to hide offensive comments posted to their feeds. Take that trolls!

Soon you’ll be able to watch Twitter content like NFL Thursday Night Football on a Twitter app on Apple TV, Xbox One and Amazon Fire TV.

“Ballot selfie” laws—laws that prohibit posting online photos of completed election ballots—are being challenged in Michigan and New Hampshire.

Google may be recording you regularly.

YouTube content creators can now communicate with their followers in real time.

AdBlock Plus has launched a service that allows website operators to display “acceptable” ads to visitors using the popular ad blocking software. Irony, anyone?

The EU might soon require the same things of chat apps like Skype that it requires of telecom businesses.

A controversial proposal aims to give the EU’s 500 million consumers more digital streaming content choices.

An Austrian teen whose parents overshared on social media looks to the law for recourse.

Baltimore County officials warned government employees to watch what they say on social media.

With so many alternative content providers around these days, why do we still watch so much TV?

Here’s a list of 50 Snapchat marketing influencers who Mashable says are worth following.

Instagram now allows users to zoom in on photos in their feeds and at least 11 brands are already capitalizing on the new feature.

Pinterest acquired Instapaper, a tool that allows you to cache webpages for reading at a later time.

A social-media celebrity with 500,000 followers and a lot of people interacting with his or her content could bring in how much for a single post?!

Snapchat’s first investor shares his secret for identifying the next big app.

SEC steps up scrutiny of investment advisers’ use of social media.

As younger audiences’ primary source of news, social media has understandably affected photojournalism.

Should social media companies establish guidelines for when they will—and will not—heed police officers’ requests to suspend suspects’ accounts?

Meet the officer behind a small New England city’s police department’s viral Facebook page.

Wondering whether you should hit “reply all” when someone has mistakenly included you on an email chain? The New York Times has one word for you.

Twitter took steps to remedy its harassment problem.

In addition, over the last six months, Twitter suspended 235,000 accounts that promoted terrorism.

The Washington Post is using language-generation technology to automatically produce stories on the Olympics and the election.

Video ads are going to start popping up on Pinterest.

Does it make sense for big brands to invest in expensive, highly-targeted social media advertising? Procter & Gamble doesn’t think so.

These brands are using Facebook in particularly effective ways during the Olympic games.

Since we first reported on the phenomenon nearly two years ago, Facebook has become an increasingly common vehicle for serving divorce papers.

Across the country, states are grappling with the conflict between existing laws that prohibit disclosing ballot information or images and the growing phenomenon of “ballot selfies”—photos posted to social media of people at the polls casting their ballots or of the ballots themselves.

Creating dozens of Facebook pages for a single brand can help marketers to increase social-media-engagement and please the Facebook algorithm gods, according to Contenly.

Here’s how Snapchat makes money from disappearing videos.

A Harvard Business Review article advises marketers to start listening to (as opposed to managing) conversations about their brands on social media.

For intel on what it can do to keep teens’ attention, Instagram goes straight to the source.

Facebook Messenger joins the elite “one billion monthly users” club just four years after its release as a standalone app.

A Canadian judge ordered a couple convicted of child neglect to post to all their social media accounts his decision describing their crime.

Leslie Jones of Ghostbusters highlights Twitter’s trolling problem. One tech columnist says the platform needs to rethink its application programming interface strategy to enable users and communities to insulate themselves from abuse.

Don’t drive and Facebook Live.

Google erased Dennis Cooper’s 14-year-old blog without warning or explanation. We recently examined the outcome of lawsuits challenging a platform’s right to remove user content (spoiler alert: the platforms usually win).

Twitter now lets anyone apply to get verified.

Researchers say there’s a correlation between an increase in the psychological stress that teens suffer and the amount of time they’re spending on social media.

A Playboy model who “fat-shamed” a woman by photographing her and posting it to Snapchat risks prosecution.

Forensic psychologists explain why people post evidence of their crimes to social media.

We may soon have a federal law making revenge porn illegal. Our blog post from 2014 took a look at some of the legal issues raised by revenge porn.

There’s now a dating app that sets people up on Pokémon Go dates. Want to know more about the most popular mobile game of all time? Read our Pokémon Go Business and Legal Primer.

Earlier this year, I helped moderate a lively panel discussion on social media business and legal trends. The panelists, who represented well-known brands, didn’t agree on anything. One panelist would make an observation, only to be immediately challenged by another panelist. Hoping to generate even more sparks, I asked each panelist to identify the issue that most frustrated him or her about social media marketing. To my surprise, the panelists all agreed that online trolls were among the biggest source of headaches.

This contentious group proceeded to unanimously bemoan the fact that the comments sections on their companies’ social media pages often devolve into depressing cesspools of invective and hate speech, scaring off customers who otherwise would be interested in engaging with brands online.

And it isn’t just our panelists who feel this way. Many online publishers have eliminated the comments sections on their websites as, over time, those sections became rife with off-topic, inflammatory and even downright scary messages.

For example, Above the Law, perhaps the most widely read website within the legal profession, recently canned its comments section, citing a change in the comments’ “number and quality.”

The technology news website Wired even put together a timeline chronicling other media companies’ moves to make the same decision, saying the change was possibly a result of the fact that, “as online audiences have grown, the pain of moderating conversations on the web has grown, too.”

Both brands and publishers are right to be concerned. Unlike consumers who visit an online branded community to voice a legitimate concern or share an invaluable insight, trolls “aren’t interested in a productive outcome.” Their main goal is harassment, and, as a columnist at The Daily Dot has observed, “People are generally less likely to use a service if harassment is part of the experience.” That’s especially true of online branded customer communities, which consumers mainly visit to get information about a brand (50%) and to engage with consumers like themselves (21%).

Of course, it’s easy for a brand to eliminate the comments section on its own website or blog. But, increasingly, brands are not engaging with consumers on their own online properties; they’re doing it on Facebook, Instagram, Twitter and other third-party social media platforms, where they typically do not have an ability to shut down user comments. Some of these platforms, however, are taking steps to rein in trolls or eliminate their opportunities to post disruptive comments altogether.

The blog comment hosting service Disqus, for example, recently unveiled a new platform feature that will allow users to “block profiles of commenters that are distracting from their online discussion experience.” The live video streaming app Periscope also recently took measures to rein in trolls, enabling users to flag what they consider to be inappropriate comments during a broadcast. If a majority of randomly selected viewers vote that the flagged comment is spam or abusive, the commenter’s ability to post is temporarily disabled. And even Facebook, Instagram and Twitter have stepped up their efforts to help users deal with harassment and unwanted messages.

Brands, however, are seeking a greater degree of control over user comments than what is being offered even by Disqus and Periscope. Given that branded content and advertising are crucial components of many social media platforms’ business models, we can expect to see platforms becoming more willing to provide brands with tools to address their troll concerns.

In fact, the user-generated content site Reddit has already taken steps in this direction. Because of its notorious trolling problem, Reddit has had trouble leveraging its large and passionate user base. Last year, in an effort to capitalize on the platform’s ability to identify trending content and create a space where brands wouldn’t be afraid to advertise, Reddit launched Upvote, and passionate user base. A site that culls news stories from Reddit’s popular subgroups and doesn’t allow comments.

Other platforms will presumably follow Reddit’s lead in creating comment-free spaces for brands. Although this may prove to be good news for many brands, one can’t help to feel that this inevitable development undermines—just as trolls have undermined—the single most exciting and revolutionary aspect of social media for companies: the ability to truly engage one-on-one with customers across the entire customer base.

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This post is a version of an op-ed piece that originally appeared in MarketWatch.

For other Socially Aware posts addressing online marketing issues, please see the following:  Influencer Marketing: Tips for a Successful (and Legal) Advertising Campaign; Innovative Social Media Marketing Cannot Overlook Old-Fashioned Compliance; and Will Ad Blockers Kill Online Publishing?  Also, check out our Social Media Marketing infographic.