As we have noted many times in prior articles, courts often refuse to enforce “browsewrap” agreements where terms are presented to users merely by including a link on a page or screen without requiring affirmative acceptance. Courts typically look more favorably on “clickwrap” agreements where users agree to be bound by, for example, checking a box or clicking an “I accept” button.

The problem is that many implementations of online contracts do not fit neatly into one category or the other. The result is that courts, seemingly unable to resist the siren song of the “-wrap” terminology, find themselves struggling to shoehorn real-life cases into the binary clickwrap/browsewrap rubric, and often resort to inventing new terminology such as the dreaded “hybridwrap.”

HealthplanCRM, LLC v. Avmed, Inc., a case out of the Western District of Pennsylvania, illustrates this phenomenon. Plaintiff Cavulus licensed certain CRM software to defendant AvMed. AvMed decided to replace Cavulus software with a different CRM product and engaged defendant NTT to assist AvMed in transitioning its data to the successor product. Cavulus alleged, among other things, that NTT misappropriated its trade secrets in the course of doing this work. Cavulus sought to compel NTT to arbitrate these claims based on an arbitration clause contained in an “End-User Agreement” that was referenced in a link on the log-in page of the Cavulus software.
Continue Reading Court Discovers Rare and Elusive “Enforceable Browsewrap”

Every day, social media users upload millions of images to their accounts; each day 350 million photos are uploaded to Facebook alone. Many social media websites make users’ information and images available to anyone with a web browser. The wealth of public information available on social media is immensely valuable, and the practice of webscraping—third parties using bots to scrape public information from websites to monetize the information—is increasingly common.

The photographs on social media sites raise thorny issues because they feature individuals’ biometric data—a type of data that is essentially immutable and highly personal. Because of the heighted privacy concerns, collecting, analyzing and selling biometric data was long considered taboo by tech companies — at least until Clearview AI launched its facial recognition software.

Clearview AI’s Facial Recognition Database

In 2016, a developer named Hoan Ton-That began creating a facial recognition algorithm. In 2017, after refining the algorithm, Ton-That, along with his business partner Richard Schwartz (former advisor to Rudy Giuliani) founded Clearview AI and began marketing its facial recognition software to law enforcement agencies. Clearview AI reportedly populates its photo database with publicly available images scraped from social media sites, including Facebook, YouTube, Twitter, and Venmo, and many others. The New York Times reported that the database has amassed more than three billion images.
Continue Reading Clearview AI and the Legal Challenges Facing Facial Recognition Databases

Computer scientist and legal scholar Nick Szabo first proposed the idea of “smart contracts” in 1996. Szabo published his initial paper on the topic in a publication called Extropy, a journal of transhumanism, a movement seeking to enhance human intellect and physiology by means of sophisticated technologies. At the time, the idea was nothing if not futuristic.

Fast forward 22 years, and even if the actual use of smart legal contracts remains largely in the future, the idea of them has gone mainstream. What follows is our list of the top five things you need to know about this quickly evolving area.

  1. Their Name Is Somewhat Confusing

When lawyers speak of contracts, they generally mean agreements that are intended to be legally enforceable. In contrast, when most people use the term “smart contract” they’re not referring to a contract in the legal sense, but instead to computer coding that may effectuate specified results based on “if, then” logic.

Advocates of smart legal contracts envision a day when coding will automatically exercise real-world remedies if one of the parties to a smart contract fails to perform.. For example, if an automotive borrower were to fail to make a car payment, coding within the smart loan agreement could automatically trigger a computer controlling the relevant car to prevent the borrower from driving it, or could cause the car to drive autonomously to the lender’s garage.

Even then, whether coding itself could ever satisfy the requirements of a legally binding contract is up for debate.
Continue Reading Five Things to Know About Smart Contracts